No Prophet Can Die Outside Jerusalem!

 

Genesis 15:1-12,17-18

Philippians 3:17-4:1

Luke 13:31-35

Psalm 27

To fully understand the passage in Luke for today, we need to look at the politics of Judea in the First Century. To help, I found an excellent article you can read if you want. You will find it at https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1013&context=studiaantiqua

I will give a summary of the key points. The history goes back a century before the time of Jesus. Rome was still a Republic ruled by the Senate. The leader of the Senate then was a man we call Pompey (not to be confused with the city of Pompei). Pompey decided to use the practice of patron-client in his dealings with Judea.

Roman culture was built on the patron-client system. Nearly everyone was both. As a middle-class teacher, I would be the patron of all the young boys (never girls) who wanted to follow me. I would provide an education for them, and they would provide for my needs; keeping house, cooking, etc. I, in turn, would be a client of a few wealthier men, often fathers of the boys, who would make sure I had money to survive and continue teaching. The education was free.

Pompey, in 63 BCE, stepped into a civil war in Judea and placed Hyrcanus in his rightful place as High Priest and Antipater as governor. He became their patron. It was not just in name. He gave them money when they needed it. He loaned troops when there was trouble. Pompey used his influence in Rome to make sure the two men were successful in Judea.

Hyrcanus and Antipater returned all the support they could to their patron. Naturally, they collected taxes and sent a large portion to Pompey, but they also defended him in their region against anyone who opposed Pompey. It was a mutual aid society, with Pompey getting more than Judea got. But, in exchange, Antipater and Hyrcanus ran the country as they wanted, within some limits.

Julius Caesar overthrew Pompey and took control of all his clients. He continued the same policies. Antipater named his son, Phasael, as governor of Galilee, and his son, Herod, as governor of Jerusalem.

When Julius Caesar was murdered in the Senate, civil war broke out. Mark Anthony was able to control Egypt and the eastern portion of the Republic for a few years. Governor Herod threw his full support to Mark Anthony who got the Senate to name Herod King of Judea. He would become known in history as Herod the Great.

However, there was a huge bump in the road to greatness. Octavian defeated Mark Anthony and became the sole ruler of the Republic, later called Augustus. Herod faced death for backing the wrong contender. He packed his bags and went to Octavian to seek forgiveness and give Octavian a pile of gold if he would allow him to continue as king. For his part, Octavian recognized Herod as being tough and able to rule the difficult Jews.

By the time of Jesus, Herod died and left three of his sons in charge. Archelaus received Galilee, and Herod Antipas received Judea. Rome soon removed Phillip. His ten wives gave him twelve or thirteen children, two of whom he executed, along with their mother. The large family thrived on the patron-client system and continued to play important roles in the first century of Christianity. Ten of them are mentioned by name in the New Testament.

When we read in verse 31 that Herod Antipas is out to get Jesus, we need to understand that Herod was under pressure from Rome to maintain stability in Judea. Anyone who might be a threat to Rome had to be eliminated.

In what way were the actions of Jesus a threat to Rome? Healing people? Neither Rome nor Herod had a problem with that. The issue was that hundreds of people flocked around him where ever he went. Crowds of people can quickly become mobs and mobs can become armies. We have seen it happen on TV, so that should not be a shock.

You might be thinking that Pilate did not want to execute Jesus, so Rome was not worried about him. Pilate was there to protect Rome, true, but he was a client who was only slightly better placed than Herod, who also had powerful patrons. They were rivals. Just a couple of years before, Pilate had received a threat of removal from office for his abusive treatment of the Temple, so he had to tread lightly. He decided to let Herod take the blame if it went wrong.

That is the negative side of the patron-client system. If a mistake is made, it is always the client who made it. Pilate had to shift blame, just in case.

Jesus, on the other hand, was acting as a client of God. It did not matter what either Pilate or Herod did; Jesus did what God led him to do.

The lesson for us is: am I a client of Joe, Mary, Sally, or Sam, or am I a client of God? As a follower of Jesus, I cannot worry about what the world does or thinks.

There is another important detail to remember. The client of a patron must always know what the patron wants. Jesus had the Holy Spirit leading him every second of the way to the cross. Jesus never doubted what his next step would be.

I must strive to have that constant relationship with God, that understanding of his will, that will make it possible to follow in Jesus’ footsteps. None of us can do it as well as Jesus did, but the saints do it very well indeed.

Why did Jesus say, it wouldn’t do for a prophet of God to be killed except in Jerusalem! CJB Prophets had been killed in the city for centuries. This is one of Jesus’ little jokes. I’m a prophet, Herod plans to kill me. I must get to Jerusalem where so many others have been killed. Yes, a dark joke.

 

Read my earlier comments on this theme here.

 

Be righteous and do good.

Mike Lawrence

Isn’t This Joseph’s Son?

 

Jeremiah 1:4-10

1 Corinthians 13:1-13

Luke 4:21-30

Psalm 71:1-6

The reading in Luke is not an easy one. Why would people who watched him grow up suddenly want to kill him?

If we read the corresponding story in Matthew 13:53-58 and Mark 6:1-6, all we see is that the people were displeased with Jesus. No one attacked him, though he could do little healing, because he was amazed at their lack of faith.

We need to look again at the text in last Sunday’s reading in Luke 4:18-19. The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me, because the Lord has anointed me to bring good news to the poor; he has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to those who are bound; to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor, and the day of vengeance of our God; to comfort all who mournESV

Isaiah 61:1-2 is the main source of this quote. It is also the main source for Luke 7:22 where Jesus answers John the Baptizer’s question. Go and tell John what you have seen and heard: the blind receive their sight, the lame walk, lepers are cleansed, and the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, the poor have good news preached to themESV

Clearly, Luke considered these words of Isaiah an important part of the ministry of Jesus.

Another point that Luke repeated is the presence of the Holy Spirit. Check 1:15; 1:35; 1:41; 1:67; 2:25 ff; 3:16; 3:22; 4:1; 4:14: and 4:18; and that only gets us to the text for today. Luke speaks of the Holy Spirit three more times in the Gospel for a total of 13 plus the single word, “Spirit,” 20 times; while the other three Gospels combine for 14 and 51. Luke adds 42 and 25 more in Acts.

The power of the Holy Spirit was central to Luke’s thinking, as it is throughout the New Testament. That which is most important comes from the Spirit. We must always be aware of the presence of the Spirit of God as we read Scripture.

The custom in the First Century synagogue was for the reader of the Scripture to expound on what he read. Jesus did that and as he spoke people were amazed. Everybody noticed what he said and was amazed at the beautiful words that came from his lips, and they kept saying, “Isn’t this Joseph’s son?” Phillips

If you’ve watched a person grow into adulthood and become a leader in the community, it’s difficult to forget the snotty little brat he used to be, not that Jesus was a brat.

Somewhere in that discourse, Jesus began to turn the people against him.  But in truth, I tell you, there were many widows in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the heavens were shut up three years and six months, and a great famine came over all the land, and Elijah was sent to none of them but only to Zarephath, in the land of Sidon, to a woman who was a widow. And there were many lepers in Israel in the time of the prophet Elisha, and none of them was cleansed, but only Naaman the SyrianESV

Jesus was speaking to God’s Chosen People. They alone received the Teaching from God. How dare this kid from their own community denigrate them?

But why did they try to kill him?

Everyone there understood and accepted Jesus when he said, “This very day this scripture has been fulfilled, while you were listening to it,” Phillips They were pleased that he identified himself as a prophet like Isaiah. Remember that this is the first interaction with people recorded by Luke. It seems that Luke wants us to see the difficulty Jesus will face throughout his ministry—the rejection by his own people. He also places the life of Jesus at the crest of death to symbolize the end of his earthly ministry.

Here we have Jesus boldly stating what he intends to do, that he expects to be rejected by most Jews, and that he will willingly face death to reach those few who understand and accept his Word.

In other words, Luke may have expanded the account to give us an important theological lesson. That is a common tool ancient authors used. No one would ever say, “it didn’t happen that way.” They would not, however, make the connection with Jesus’ death until much later.

 

Read my earlier comments on this theme here.

 

Be righteous and do good.

Mike Lawrence