This story in Samuel—David and Bathsheba—is as straightforward as any in the Bible. David sinned.
There have been many explanations for why David took the woman he did not even know. Around 400 AD, Jerome wrote, even in his own house, a man cannot use his eyes without danger. ACCS It was not David’s fault; she should not have been bathing at that time. Others have argued through the centuries that Bathsheba set out to entice David so that she could become his queen.
There is also the argument that the phrase—she had just purified herself after her period JSB—was proof that she was properly baptized and ready to unite with David, the Christ figure. This idea was labored upon about a century after Jerome by Cassiodorus who wrote, Bathsheba manifested a type of the church or of human flesh and…David bore the mark of Christ. ACCS
In the age of #MeToo, I don’t think this will stand up. I also see nothing in the Bible to support any such notion. Even if Bathsheba wanted to be noticed, that does not excuse David’s actions. If you argue that it was her fault, then you permit me to rape any woman I want.
Some have said that she chose to bath on her roof rather than in hiding. Again, no. Most homes had no other place to bath. People lived on their roofs, ate on the roofs, had parties on the roofs. There is no hint that Bathsheba was at fault. Think about it; if she had not been more beautiful than all his wives, he would have stopped looking and gotten back to work.
For you women readers let me explain. Men instinctively rate the women they see on their sexual attractiveness. We may or may not think about it, but it is there. But here are two important points: most men are lucky to see one Bathsheba in a lifetime, and most are willing to forgo the lust they feel or share it with their wives. Yes, the divorce rates are high, but most men do not marry more beautiful women.
We do not know how many wives David had at that time, but it was significant. (12:8, I gave you your master’s house and possession of your master’s wives.) David sinned.
We should not blame him for taking some time off from the wars or for taking time to relax on his roof. He had duties besides being commander in chief. He had the right to relax.
David had no excuse, he sinned.
Be righteous and do good.